When administered Metronidazole is rapidly and almost completely absorbed (about 80% for 1 hour). Food does not affect the absorption of metronidazole. The bioavailability of not less than 80%. After oral administration of 500 mg of metronidazole over the plasma concentrationl. The contact with blood proteins insignificant and does not exceed 10-20%). Metronidazole rapidly penetrates into tissues (lung, kidney, liver, skin, bile, spinal fluid, saliva, semen, vaginal secretions) in breast milk and pass the placental barrier. Metabolized about 30-60% metronidazole by hydroxylation, oxidation and glyukuronirovaniya. The major metabolite (2-oximetronidazole) also has protivoprotozoynoe and antimicrobial effects.
Withdrawal of metronidazole is carried primobolan cycle by 40-70% through the kidneys (unchanged – about 35% of the dose). In patients with impaired renal function at course taking metronidazole may increase its concentration in the blood serum.
- Protozoal infections: extra-intestinal amebiasis, including amebic liver abscess, intestinal amebiasis (amebic dysentery), trichomoniasis (including).
- Infections caused of Bacteroides spp, bone and joint infections, central nervous system infections , including meningitis , brain abscess, bacterial endocarditis and pneumonia, empyema and lung abscess, sepsis.
- Infections caused by species of Clostridium spp, Peptococcu niger and spp Peptostreptococcus.. : Abdominal infections (peritonitis, liver abscess), pelvic infections (endometritis, abscess of the fallopian tubes and ovaries, vaginal cuff infection).
- Pseudomembranous colitis (involving the use of antibiotics).
- Gastritis or ulcer 12 duodenal ulcer associated with of Helicobacter pylori (complex therapy).
- Prevention of postoperative complications (especially interventions on the colon, adrectal area apendektomiya, gynecological operations).Contraindications
- Hypersensitivity to imidazoles and nitroimidazole derivatives.
- Organic CNS (including epilepsy).
- Leukopenia (including history).
- Liver failure (in the case of the appointment of large doses).
- Children under 10 years old.Carefully:
- Hepatic encephalopathy.
- Acute and chronic diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system (risk of worsening of neurological symptoms).
- Renal insufficiency.Dosage and administration
Metronidazole is intended for oral administration, either before or after a meal. Wash down with plenty of water.
When the intestinal amebiasis primobolan cycle used within 7 days of 1500 mg per day for three meals. In acute amoebic dysentery – a daily dose of 2250 mg, divided into three stages. Children from 10 to 15 years – 500 mg per day, divided into 2 doses.
If an abscess of the liver and other extra-intestinal forms of amebiasis maximum daily dose is 2,500 mg, divided into 3 doses for 3-5 days, in combination with antibiotics and tetracycline other therapies. . Children from 10 to 15 years – 500 mg per day, divided into 2 doses
If trichomoniasis in women (urethritis and vaginitis) administered a single dose of 2 g or as a course of treatment for 10 days: 1 tablet. (250 mg), 2 times a day.
If trichomoniasis in men (urethritis) administered once at a dose of 2 g or a course of treatment for 10 days on 1 tab. (250 mg), 2 times a day.
Treatment of anaerobic infections usually start with an intravenous infusion, followed by a transition to the tablet. For adults, the is 500 mg three times a day. The duration of treatment is up to 7 days.
For the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis is prescribed (Table 2.) 3-4 times a day. Duration of treatment is determined by your doctor.
For primobolan cycle pylori eradication appoint daily in combination therapy (eg, amoxicillin).
For the prevention of postoperative complications appoint 750-1500 mg per day in 3 divided doses for 3-4 of the day before surgery. After 1-2 days after the operation (when the reception is already enabled orally) per day for 7 days.Possible side effects when using the drug Violations of the gastrointestinal tract
- Epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Inflammation of the oral mucosa (glossitis, stomatitis), dysgeusia ( “metallic” taste in the mouth), loss of appetite, anorexia, dryness of the oral mucosa, constipation.
- Pancreatitis (cases of reversible). Violations of the immune system
- Angioedema, anaphylactic shock. Disorders of the nervous system
- Peripheral sensory neuropathy.
- Headache, convulsions, dizziness.
- Reported the development of encephalopathy (eg confusion) and subacute cerebellar syndrome (impaired coordination and synergy of movements, ataxia, dysarthria, gait disturbance, nystagmus and tremor) which regress after the abolition of metronidazole.
- Aseptic meningitis. Mental Disorders
- Psychotic disorders including confusion, hallucinations.
- Depression, insomnia, irritability, anxiety. Violations of the organ of vision
- Transient visual disturbances, such as double vision, myopia. Violations of the blood and lymphatic system
- Agranulocytosis, leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Violations of the liver and biliary tract
- It reported on the development of reversible disorders in laboratory parameters of liver function and cholestatic hepatitis sometimes with jaundice. Violations of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
- Rash, pruritus, flushing of the skin, urticaria.
- Pustular rash. Violations of the kidney and urinary tract
- Perhaps urine staining primobolan cycle reddish brown color due to the presence of water-soluble metabolite in the urine of metronidazole.
- Dysuria, polyuria, cystitis, urinary incontinence, candidiasis. General disorders and administration site in
- Fever, stuffy nose, arthralgia, weakness. Laboratory and instrumental data.